Color Changing Eyes in Kittens

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Look at your cat’s eyes and see its color. The majority of adult cats have eyes whose color ranges from yellow, gold, and green on one side and brown, orange, and copper on the other. There could be variations of shades in between. Cats, surprisingly, have blue eyes too. Almost all kittens get born with somewhat blue eyes, and a few cats retain the apparent hue all through their lives. The question is, when do the eyes of kittens change color, and why does it happen?

Refraction

The blue color you see in a kitten’s eye is due to refracted light and not pigmentation. It is actually an absence of color mixed with light refraction. The production of eye colors in cats is a degree of transparency of the outer eye along with available pigment in the iris of the cat.

When it comes to kittens, the eyes are not even open when they are born. The eyes are sealed shut and have no function. The organ is not fully developed during birth. The only functional senses are smell and touch. A kitten sleeps and eats with its mother’s assistance. These activities provide the raw materials and fuel to grow the body. This includes preparing the kitten’s eyes for sight.

Mature eyes

Different kittens develop at different paces, but the eyes of a kitten get sufficiently mature to be open from their second week from birth. This could be any time from seven days to 14 days post birth. Once there is a separation of the eyelids, it may take about three days to open completely. This does not mean the eyes are functional. Maturing of the eye includes the development of the capability to process light and also interpret the sensory input. From the first month to about five weeks of his birth, a kitten perceives the world as a blur. A majority of kittens acquire full visual and ocular functionality from five weeks of age to about seven weeks.

The kitten’s eyes during the development period will not be completely mature. It will be only from about three months to six months of age. The eyes of the kitten seem blue for the first few weeks after they open their eyes. This is the result of light getting refracted off the cornea, the transparent outer covering of the eyeball and the four layers’ relative thickness. With the maturation of color of the cat-eye, the perception of that color gets affected. The latter is also influenced by this refracted blue-green or blue outer covering. The color starts to change from the seventh week of its birth. The melanocytes of the iris begin to generate melanin, the pigment which gives the eye of any cat its adult coloration.

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Get to know about the cat parasite called Toxo here

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Toxo or Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease which can infect almost all warm-blooded animals. However, the parasite is only able to complete its life cycle in a cat’s body. An immature form of the parasite, responsible for this disease, Toxoplasma gondii houses itself in the muscle and organ tissues of infected animals, from where it spreads to other animals. For e.g.: A cat may contract the parasite from an infected mouse.

The immature form of Toxo, then, matures inside the cat’s intestines and is excreted in its feces. Any animal who then happens to consume this fecal matter becomes infected with Toxoplasmosis.

Humans are just as vulnerable to this disease as are other animals. For this reason, it is essential to learn how to mitigate the risks of developing Toxoplasmosis. Infected cats carry the contagion for at least three weeks. Toxoplasmosis can be transmitted from feces if these feces is a minimum of 24 hours old. Contaminated raw or undercooked beef/pork/lamb consumption can also lead to the development of this condition.

In our article, we will be focusing on how to detect and treat this parasitic disease in our felines.

Symptoms

Kittens and cats with reduced immune function are most at risk of contracting Toxoplasmosis. You can tell that your cat may be suffering from a T.gondii infection, if it displays lethargy, is feverish or displays a lack of appetite. If the parasite attacks your cat’s lungs, they may experience difficult breathing as it could cause pneumonia. If it develops in the liver, your cat may begin to show symptoms of jaundice. Other symptoms to watch out for are – blindness, loss of bladder/anal control, increased sensitivity to touch, impaired coordination, seizures, ear twitching, difficulty in chewing and swallowing food and so on.

How do you diagnose Toxoplasmosis in a cat?

A vet looks into a cat’s history, signs of illness, and lab test results before diagnosing it with Toxoplasmosis. Measuring two separate antibodies to T.gondii is helpful in diagnosing the disease. High levels of the antibody IgM indicate active infection in the cat. On the other hand, if the antibody IgG is present in a good amount, it means that your cat has previously been infected by Toxo and has now become immune to it. If the cat shows no T.gondii antibody content, the cat is then, susceptible to developing the condition in the future.

How is Toxoplasmosis treated?

The antibiotic, clindamycin, is useful in treating cats with Toxoplasmosis. Treatment should begin immediately after the cat has been diagnosed, and carry on till the last signs of the disease have disappeared. Corticosteroids may also be administered in conjunction with clindamycin if the vet suspects damage to the eyes or Central Nervous System.

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Can you feed your cat eggs?

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Would you feed your cat eggs? And if you could, is it advisable to do so? The answer to both questions is a resounding yes. Cats can eat eggs. Dietary cholesterol was never a problem for felines. Egg yolks are perfectly safe for cats. Felines do suffer from a number of heart diseases, but they usually do not catch atherosclerosis. Cats suffer from two kinds of heart disease: hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and feline obesity. The first one is mostly hereditary and the second one is connected to insufficiency in dietary taurine. This condition has almost been eliminated by taurine supplementation in the cat foods. Eggs are an excellent taurine source. You can give your cat eggs in moderation. The only exception is the rare case of a cat being allergic to egg.

Moderation

Cats should eat egg in moderation as they do not offer balanced and complete nutrition for the cat. A feline eating only eggs will soon suffer from considerable dietary deficiencies. It is perfectly okay to feed your cat cooked eggs as treats. Do consult a veterinarian before you make this a permanent affair.

Raw eggs

You can feed your cat raw eggs. The official stance, in this case, is that you must not feed your cat raw eggs due to the probability of zoonotic bacterial infections. Bacteria gets killed by cooking. Raw foods are more probable to host many bacteria. The list of bacteria include Campylobacter, Salmonella, and E.coli could infect cats. It can then spread to humans. There are a considerable number of pet owners who are infected in this manner. Then again, there are a number of cat owners who knowingly feed their cats raw eggs and nothing has happened to both the animal and the cat. Raw egg whites have the avidin protein, that binds biotin or vitamin B7. Overeating of avidin may result in biotin deficiency. Cooking results in denaturing of the avidin. It is thus recommended that cats consume solely cooked eggs. Cats can eat raw eggs as in the real world, a kitty would have to an absurdly large number of raw eggs for many years to develop the deficiency. It means you can give your cat both raw and cooked eggs. From the two, the latter is better.

It is clear that cats can eat eggs in moderation. The food item is delicious and nutritious. They are quite healthy and safe for kitties. This does not mean you should feed your cat one egg every day. This is as if accounting for body weight; one egg for humans equals 15 eggs for your cat. It means you should give your cat one egg every two weeks maximum.

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Here’s How to Care for Your American Water Spaniel

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Have your heart set on bringing home an American Water Spaniel? Educate yourself about tips on how to care for this dog breed beforehand, so you leave no gaps unplugged when looking after your pet.

American water spaniel basic info

The American Water Spaniel is a hunting dog, in essence, with a lust for the wild. However, it also doubles up as a great family dog option because of its agreeable and eager to please temperament. You won’t have to struggle much to train this intelligent dog breed. Active and obedient, an American Water Spaniel makes for a good pet for apartment dwellers and house-owners alike.

Caregiving tips for this dog breed

The care that you give to your dog can be divided into the following areas –

  • Meal requirement – Your American Water Spaniel pup will require more food than your full-grown American Water Spaniel. While still a pup, your pet will require at least 2 bowls of food in the span of a day. Feed it four bowls in its infancy and cut down on the portion as it ages. When it becomes a year old, one full serving of food or two half-servings of food in a 24-hour period will suffice to meet your breed dog’s appetite and dietary requirement.
  • Grooming – There is no need to bathe your American Water Spaniel more than a handful of times a year. Just brush its coat of fur regularly, to keep it clean and keep a check on its shedding. Doing so will also keep away ticks in warm weather.
  • Exercise-Thehe American Water Spaniel is high on energy. You’ll need to find ways to expend this energy if you want to keep your pet from sulking or getting bored. A regular walk along the neighborhood won’t do for this dog breed. Take it out to play in the park or go for your morning jog with your dog in tow.
  • Dental and ear-care – Although, this breed dog is known for quality teeth, make it a practice to brush its teeth twice a week to keep it clean and strong. Pet care professionals recommend that you clean out your spaniel’s ear every week, to enable it to hear properly.

Overall, caring for an American Water Spaniel is not an expensive affair. You need to make sure that its appetite for food and exercise is met, to have a healthy and happy dog. It’s grooming requirements are significantly low. A brush on its coat, now and then, will take care of its grooming needs for the most part. You may also choose to brush its teeth and clean its ear weekly to avoid any oral/aural complications later.

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Why You Need a Puppy?

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Dog owners know that a wet kiss from a puppy can brighten up even the worst day. Science shores up the assumption that dogs make anyone happier. Your dog can also make you healthier. This is as your dog is good for the heart. Owning a dog actually reduces the chances of having a heart attack. Other cardiovascular diseases are also reduced. When you cuddle your dog, a lot of good things happen!

Therapist and cancer detection

Your dog can also act as your therapist. Animal Assisted Therapy (AAT) or Pet Therapy as it is also known, has been associated with pain reduction. AAT has also worked wonders to reduce anxiety and depression in many individuals afflicted with a broad range of physical health problems and mental health problems. A number of people have undergone pet therapy, including veterans suffering from Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and patients undergoing chemotherapy. Even physical therapy patients working to improve their motor skills can benefit from keeping dogs for company. It is known that people who do not see their families for long stretches of time take dogs to alleviate feelings of depression and homesickness. In students, dogs help to reduce stress during examination time.

Dogs are known to sniff out cancer. They have a certain sense of smell, which is one million times stronger than a human. Working canines use their keen smell sense to locate drugs and bombs. Puppies can smell any abnormality present in our bodies. Research has conclusively proved that an average dog can be trained to sniff out cancer in humans. A dog can also detect biomarkers in urine.

Active happiness

Your dog will keep you active. A dog owner walks much more compared to a non-dog owner. It has been calculated that owners of dogs have a 34 percent more probability of staying fit by achieving the required quantum of exercise every week compared to those who do not have dogs. Walking with the dog can look like a low impact exercise, but it works. It also helps that dogs lower the stress levels. Any interaction with dogs reduce stress levels. Even simple activities like petting the dog or playing fetch could increase the oxytocin hormone level in the body. This is a feel-good hormone. It also leads to lower cortisol production. This hormone induces stress in the body. ] Dogs reduce blood pressure, This is essential for all ages, and it is found that the presence of a dog lowers blood pressure brought by mental stress. A good snuggle with your dog works wonders for your body. It helps that dogs help in ceasing social isolation. A dog helps the sense of belonging.

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Why Does Your Cat Sit on You?

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Nothing feels happier than your cat sitting on your lap. Nothing can surpass the pleasure of a furball, choosing to relax on top of you. This is a special kind of bond which does wonders for the cat owner. It lowers your blood pressure and is good for your cat too. Do remember that not all cats sit on their owners. Some turn out to be lap cats. Whether a cat will sit on its owner depends on the individual cat.

Warmth and liking

A cat wants a few fundamental needs before they take the decision to sit on a person’s lap. They can also choose to sit on your clothes. The easiest and the most logical answer as to why cats sit on your lap is that you are warm. Felines love the warmth and the laps of humans are exactly that-warm and inviting to any kitty.

This does not mean cats will sit on anyone’s lap. They sit on people which they like. Cats like to make a connection with people they like, and sometimes they want to be petted too. This is important to the cat as petting resembles their mom’s grooming. It is thus logical that cats want to be petted by people they like. A few cats also knead when they sit on a person’s lap. The action of kneading simulates the animal’s neo-natal days when kittens did that to mothers to stimulate the flow of milk. The behavior can be regarded as a self-comforting one, like purring.

Smell and the feeling of safety

Your cat also sits on you as it feels safe. The cat sitting on your lap is a relaxed cat, safe in the knowledge that you are there to protect it if something happens. A good smell is also a major factor. Your cat likes how you smell and thus wants to be near you. If you are not present in the house, the kitty will find out a piece of cloth with your scent on it and sit on that piece. If you visit an animal shelter, your cat will know about it instantly by smelling you. The animal can then avoid you for the time being. Do not feel sad. Other than the smell, the texture of clothes also matter. Cats do not like to sit on plastic products but love soft fleece and cotton. This holds true for complete strangers as well. Anyone wearing a soft cotton cloth may expect a cat to sit on the lap. Conversely, if you wish to avoid any cat, wear a raincoat or a jacket made of rayon. Cats only sit on people they believe they could trust. If a cat sits on you, it means the animal trusts you.

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Teaching Your Dog to Bow

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Before you teach your dog to bow, the animal must be compliant with the “sit” and “lie down” commands. Once your dog learns to bow, the trick will get it (and you) a large number of admirers. This trick wows a lot of people!

Basic commands first

The first step is to make sure the dog remembers how to come when called, sit down and lie on the ground or on the surface when you command it. The dog must know its name and respond when that name is called. If the animal is not adept in doing these things, you must teach your dog these commands first.

Once you are sure that your dog can follow all the basic commands, it is now time to teach it how to bow. Order the dog to stand in such a way that the animal faces you. The distance between the dog and you must be approximately two feet. Take its favorite treat and hold it in such a way that your dog can see it. Do not give the treat right now. If you think it is necessary, wave the treat to make sure the dog pays attention.

Hand signaling method

Hold the treat in hand and wave it downward. You can even drop the product on the floor. It is important the dog must lower its eyes and keep both of them on that treat. Immediately praise the dog and pet it. Allow the animal to take the treat and take yet another one to be ready for the next step. If you use a clicker, click a little before to give the dog its treat. Repeat the sequence for multiple times so that the cat gets used to the movement and the subsequent reward. There is no need to worry if the dog stands up. It will learn to link the treat (also clicker if using) with this movement post repetition. It is now time to add verbal cues. First, you add any appropriate phrase, like “bow.” Pronounce the word as the animal gets into position. Take your hand and do the action of putting it down on the floor to indicate to the dog to do the same with his head. Once your dog does this, give it the treat. If you use a clicker, just click before you give the treat. Repeat the action multiple times. Continue with your verbal cue and also move the hand towards the ground. Switch to pretend treat. When you open your hand while on the floor, the hand must be empty. Give the dog its treat, but with your other hand. Repeat this multiple times. Try giving your “bow” command without you moving your signaling hand. Reinforce this action.

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Signs Your Cat Loves You

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Are you sure your cat loves you? Kitties express love for their owners in multiple ways. Some of them are blatantly obvious, and others are subtle. You may have ignored them without realizing. The first sign of your cat actually loving you is that your kitty “gifts” you a lot of things. This can turn out to be yucky like the latest kill done by your cat. To your kitty, the dead animal is actually a present. Your cat is a natural hunter, and what it gifts you can be seen as a kind of offering. Do regard such horrible gifts as a love token.

Tummy flashing

You can see your cat flash its tummy. This is not normal behavior. Cats, like most animals in the natural realm, do not exhibit their stomachs just to everyone. In case you see your kitty rolling over and you see its fuzzy belly, it is a clear indication that the cat feels relaxed around you. The animal also feels protected and loved around you. This is why they make themselves defenseless around you by showing their tummies. Remembers that cats are not only cautious, but they are also full of pride, and the only reason they make themselves vulnerable around you is that they trust you completely.

If your cat head buts you, then it means the animal trusts you. This is a big step from the cat’s side. When a cat does this, it actually deposits facial pheromones on you. These represent their feelings and make you your cat’s property. The cat is leaving its scent on you for claiming you. Other than headbutting the cat may give you love bites. The animal will nibble you in a playful way. Although this could be painful, it is the animal’s way of showing its affection towards you. This bite is a lot different than the bite, which causes bodily harm. It can tickle, or it may cause pain. Whatever it is, bear it.

Lingering and kneading

If your cat follows you or lingers around you, it means the animal loves you. Cats like to hover around things they are fond of. This is why they wrap themselves around your legs while you walk. They do not want to trip you but wants to be near you all the time. To you, it may seem that your kitty is aloof when you are near it. It is a bluff if the animal is always near you. That your cat loves you will be beyond doubt if the animal kneads you like as you are a pizza dough. This action is the love the cat developed when it was born and nursing from its mother. The cat gets pleasure from it,

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Kissing Your Cat

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The common saying is to refrain from kissing your cat. This is good advice as there exist a few real risks when you kiss your cat. It is obvious that you should not kiss the cat when the animal is sick. The problem with cats is since they are stoic by nature, it is hard to figure out whether the feline is ill or not.

Transmissible diseases

Not all cat diseases are applicable to you. Kennel cough is completely a cat thing, and you will never catch it. There are many zoonotic diseases, however, which could be transferred from felines to humans. The list of zoonotic diseases includes common bacteria, like Salmonella, Pasteurella, E-coli, and Staphylococcus. All these diseases are extremely contagious. The ringworm is another common, highly contagious fungal infection. It can swiftly spread from the affected cat to a human. The disease is relatively harmless but can be a pain to treat.

Another risky zoonotic disease is Bartonella or cat scratch fever. It has been known to pass to humans. Parasites like Toxoplasmosis could occasionally be transmitted to humans by clumsy management of kitty litter. In case you believe your cat has any one or all of the above diseases, do not kiss the animal or touch it. Refer to a veterinarian as quickly as possible.

Lip kissing

Contrary to popular notion, do not kiss your cat on its lips. It is simply a rumor that the lips of a cat are more hygienic than a human’s. The lips of the cat, however, may contain bacteria which could result in gum disease. Since a cat is a predator, it also eats animals and also insects which could be disease carriers. It is thus unsafe to kiss your cat on its lips. Alternatively, give a peck on the kitty’s head as this action has less chance of carrying any disease. You can ensure the oral hygiene of your cat by regularly brushing the feline’s teeth or the administration of mouth wash. The veterinarian will be the best person to advise you on the techniques to do this. There is no harm in doing a quick peck if both you and your cat are healthy. The risk of transmitting disease is quite low. Some humans, however, are at risk when they come in close contact with animals. The people who must stay away from close contact with felines include pregnant women and toddlers. Also at risk are immunocompromised individuals (like those who have HIV) and people having lowered immune systems. If you or any members of your family fall into this category, then it is an excellent idea to consult a physician. If you want to kiss your cat, do it only when the animal is relaxed and calm.

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Introducing Your Dog to Your Workplace

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You would love to take your puppy to the workplace. Showing up with your dog unannounced could be the easiest way to harm your career prospects. There exist a few methods to make your dog known to people in your professional life- beginning with your boss.

Managing your workmates

The first action is to do the groundwork. Gift your boss a semi-expensive wine in an innocuous manner. This will blunt any action your boss can possibly make against you if your dog does something stupid (and it will). The alcohol also makes the boss a little tipsy and that person will be more agreeable when you ask permission. Do not ask only verbally. Confirm the acceptance with an email. This will provide you a shield if higher-ups in the company complain.

Since the boss is now in your bag, it is now time to move to your co-workers. Give your colleagues chocolates or anything they like when you inform them of your intention. If any person objects or tries to, prepare a long speech about the benefit of having canines in the place of work. Dogs also make a nice non-controversial topic of conversation.

Behavior

Now since everybody is on-board, it is now time to take the dog to work. Why not walk instead of the usual drive? Other than exercise, a walk gives your dog more chance to urinate beside the space below the desk. If your house is too far from your office, then buy a pet carrier for your dog. It will make this travel much less stressful. If your luck is good, you can be the most popular person in public transport thanks to Social Media. Almost everyone likes dogs, and if your dog is of particular sweet disposition, then the animal will brighten up many a person’s days. It is a good idea to avoid the rush and be crushed along with your dog in the mass of humanity. You can also purchase a doggy sized sidecar. Your dog is now in the office. It is important that you pet-proof the workplace. Cover every cable, especially WiFi cord. Your dog may enjoy itself while chewing cables and wires. It can also be extremely dangerous for you, as the whole office will be angry with you (and blame your dog) if the office suddenly goes offline. Groom the puppy before you take the animal to work. Get the animal a fresh breath and a clean cut. Do prepare the case containing your dog’s belongings. It is vital that the dog stays stimulated and relaxed. Do not take the toys from your home and bring it to the office. Do not allow the dog to hamper productivity.

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